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Updated: Aug 25, 2021

There are several emerging IoT standards, including:

* IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPAN) is an open standard defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (ETF). The 6LoWPAN standard, 804.15.4, allows any low-power radio to communicate with the internet, including Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) and Z-Wave (for home automation).

* ZigBee is a low power, low data rate wireless network, mainly used in industrial environments. ZigBee is based on the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.15.4 standard. ZigBee Alliance has created Dotdot, the universal language for IoT that enables intelligent objects to work securely on any network and understand each other.

* LiteOS is a Unix-like operating system for wireless sensor networks. LiteOS supports smartphones, wearable devices, smart manufacturing applications, smart homes, and the Internet of vehicles (iov). The operating system also serves as a smart device development platform.

* OneM2M is a machine-to-machine service layer that can be embedded in software and hardware to connect devices. The global standardization organization OneM2M was created to develop reusable standards to enable IoT applications at different verticals to communicate.

* Data delivery service (DDS) is developed by The Object Management Group (OMG) and is an IoT standard for real-time, scalable and high-performance M2M communications.

* Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP) is a published open source standard for wired asynchronous messaging. AMQP enables encrypted and interoperable messaging between organizations and decommissioned applications. The protocol is used in client-server messaging and IoT Device Management.

* Restricted application protocol (CoAP) is a protocol designed by the IETF that specifies how low-power, computing-constrained devices can work in the Internet of things.

* Long-range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN) is a protocol for WANs designed to support large networks such as smart cities with millions of low-power devices.

IoT frameworks include:

* Amazon Web Services (AWS) IoT is a cloud computing platform for IoT released by Amazon. This framework is designed to enable smart devices to easily connect to and securely interact with the AWS cloud and other connected devices.

* Arm Mbed IoT is a platform for developing IoT applications based on Arm microcontrollers. The purpose of the Arm Mbed IoT platform is to provide a scalable, connected and secure environment for IoT devices by integrating Mbed tools and services.

* Microsoft's Azure IoT Suite is a platform of a number of services that allow users to interact with and retrieve data from IoT devices, as well as perform and visualize various operations on data, such as multidimensional analysis, transformation, and collection.

* Google's Brillo / weave is a platform for fast implementation of IoT applications. The Platform consists of two main decks: Brillo, an Android-based operating system for the development of embedded low-power devices, and Weave, an IoT-oriented communication protocol that serves as the language of communication between the device and the cloud.

* Calvin is an open source IoT platform released by Ericsson, designed to create and manage distributed applications that allow devices to talk to each other. Calvin includes a development framework for application developers as well as a runtime environment for processing the running application.


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